Electroretinography measures the electrical responses of various cell types in the retina, including the photoreceptors (rods and cones), inner retinal cells. Basic mechanisms of electrical field generation in the tissue. Recording protocols Electroretinography (ERG) alone does not give you necessarily a diagnosis. Electroretinogram: An electrical diagnostic test of retinal function in situ. Electro – part Show you the basic clinical test; Show some research examples. The Eye .

Author: Kirr Goltiramar
Country: Norway
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Literature
Published (Last): 19 September 2016
Pages: 139
PDF File Size: 16.78 Mb
ePub File Size: 8.19 Mb
ISBN: 225-6-95014-533-1
Downloads: 19379
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Dara

These current source-density analyses have indeed revealed the anatomical location within the retina of the different ERG components. In the human response Fig. This observation is consistent with the notion that the cone system is suppressed in the dark-adapted state and that light adaptation removes this inhibitory action. The rod and cone photoreceptor function responses can be separated electtoretinogram a variety of ERG electroretinnogram.

This contribution can be isolated in the laboratory by using specific drugs, but in the clinical environment, the ERG b-wave of patients reflects all contributions summed together.

The a-wave and b-wave are elecfroretinogram by the slow, corneal-positive c-wave. Light emitting diodes LEDs produce longer flashes upto 5 milisecond, and peak time in such cases should be measured from the midpoint of the flash to compensate the effect of flash duration on the p eak tim e, according to the current ISCEV guidelines update.

Similar articles in PubMed. The oscillatory waves of the electroretimogram electroretinogram. Whereas the STR reflects rod-mediated vision, the M-wave is dominated by the cone system.


Under certain conditions, barium ions even caused augmentation of the b-wave as shown in Fig. Although it is not known for certain, it is suspected that OPs are generated from the amacrine cells located electroretinogfam the inner retina.

As the stimulus intensity is increased, the ERG b-wave increases in amplitude and becomes faster in kinetics. Selective reduction in b-wave amplitude more prominent in scotopic than photopic responses; delayed photopic and scotopic b-wave implicit times. The field potential and the potassium concentration were recorded simultaneously with a double-barreled more Historical View As early asHolmgren found that a light stimulus could cause a change in the electrical potential of the amphibian eye.

Initially decreased oscillatory potentials, later stages involve reduced a- and b-wave amplitudes.

Since rods cannot follow a flicker stimulus greater than 20 Hz, cone photoreceptor function is primarily measured under light-adapted conditions for at least 10 minutes with either single flash stimulus wavelength greater than nm or 30 Hz flicker stimulus.

B, average effects more However, we have to remember that the magnitude of the different resistances, and more so, the relationships between them, can also affect the ERG that is measured with extraocular electrodes.


The rod curve peaks at the blue-green region of the visible spectrum around nm. As early as electroretinogrwm, Holmgren found that a light stimulus could cause a change in the electrical potential of the amphibian eye.

Figure 4 ERGs recording from the skate.

The Electroretinogram: ERG – Webvision – NCBI Bookshelf

Figure 26 Fitting cone a-waves to the phototransduction model. Figure 16 The ERG responses of a volunteer that were elicited with the same light stimulus during continuous background illumination A and after 30 min in the dark B. Assigned status Up to Date by Peter A. The Early Receptor Potential ERP This component of the light-induced activity of the eye was first revealed when a very bright light flash was used to stimulate the monkey eye 2263the rat eye 64or the human eye In some laboratories, the time-to-peak of the a-wave is also measured L a in Fig.

The ERG and sites and mechanisms of retinal disease, adaptation, and development.

To derive the isolated rod P-III wave and allow analysis of rod function alone, a procedure for a rod-isolating technique has been suggested Furthermore, exchange of information between laboratories that use different recording conditions has always basice problematical. Marked rod dysfunction and elevated threshold of rods and cones on dark adaptation.

The pigment epithelium layer R-membrane offers the highest resistance to electrical current along the ocular tissues as denoted by a large resistor R6 in Fig. Researchers and clinicians who are interested in objective assessment of retinal function need to become familiar with the ERG waves.


Szikra T, Witkovsky P. Measurements of critical fusion frequency CFFthe maximal frequency of stimulation that can be perceived as flickering, show low CFF in dim illumination that rises with stimulus intensity until a plateau phase of about 15 Hz is reached.

The above conclusions are supported by another study on the retina-eyecup preparation of the tiger salamander, showing that drugs disrupting the activity of third-order neurons gasics enhancement of the b-wave The amplitude of the ERP depends directly upon stimulus intensity and the concentration of visual pigment in the electroretinogramm segments of the photoreceptors.

Since silicon oil does not conduct electric currents, the resistance of the vitreous increases by several folds causing the current I B to be so reduced that the ERG becomes very small in amplitude With further increase in the flash intensity, both the a-wave and the b-wave increase in amplitude and become faster. This page has been accessedtimes. Background adaptation in human infants: